VERITABLE RECORDS of the JOSEON DYNASTY
Meanwhile, the Mt. Odae repository archives were taken to Japan during the Colonial Period (1910-45) and mostly destroyed during the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923, but 27 (20 from of the Veritable Records of Jungjong and 7 from the Veritable Records of Seonjo) of the 74 surviving books are now back in Korea and housed in the Kyujanggak collection. The Tokyo National University Library holds the other 47 books (9 from the Veritable Records of Seongjong, 30 from the Veritable Records of Jungjong, and 8 from the Veritable Records of Seonjo). Discussions are now underway on their repatriation to Korea and on designating the place in Korea for their preservation.
Origins of Sillok Compilation
※ The following chart summarizes the facts pertaining to the annals for each ruler.
|Original title / Remarks|
|1||Taejo sillok / Veritable Records of King Taejo||15||3||1413 (13th year of King Taejong)||太祖實錄(太祖康獻大王實錄)|
|2||Gongjeong-wang sillok/ Veritable Records of King Jeongjong||6||1||1426 (8th year of King Sejong)||定宗大王實錄(恭靖王實錄)|
|3||Taejong sillok/ Veritable Records of King Taejong||36||16||1431 (13th year of King Sejong)||太宗實錄(太宗恭定大王實錄)|
|4||Sejong jangheon daewang sillok/ Veritable Records of King Sejong||163||67||1454 (2nd year of King Danjong)||世宗莊憲大王實錄 * Veritable Records of King Sejong including 36 monographs on various topics|
|5||Munjong daewang sillok/ Veritable Records of King Munjong||13||6||1455 (1st year of King Sejo)||文宗恭順大王實錄 (However, fasicle no. 11 is missing.)|
|6||Danjong daewang sillok/ Veritable Records of King Danjong||14||6||1469 (1st year of King Yejong)||端宗大王實錄(魯山君日記) Daily Records of Nosan’gun including a supplement added in 1468, renamed Veritable Records of Danjong in 1704 and includes the supplement.|
|7||Sejo hyejang daewang sillok / Veritable Records of King Sejo||49||18||1471 (2nd year of King Seongjong)||世祖惠莊大王實錄 Veritable Records of Sejo including 2 monographs (on music and geneologies)|
|8||Yejong yangdo daewang sillok / Veritable Records of King Yejong||8||3||1472 (3rd year of King Seongjong)||睿宗襄悼大王實錄|
|9||Seongjong daewang sillok / Veritable Records of King Seonjong||297||47||1499 (5th year of King Yeonsangun)||成宗大王實錄(成宗康靖大王實錄)|
|10||Yeongsan-gun ilgi / Daily Records of Yeonsan'gun||63||17||1509 (4th year of King Jungjong)||燕山君日記|
|11||Jungjong daewang sillok / Veritable Records of King Jungjong||105||53||1550 (5th year of King Myeongjong)||中宗大王實錄(中宗恭僖徽文昭武欽仁誠孝大王實錄)|
|12||Injong daewang sillok / Veritable Records of King Injong||2||2||1550 (5th year of King Myeongjong)||仁宗大王實錄(仁宗榮靖獻文懿武章肅欽孝大王實錄)|
|13||Myeongjong daewang sillok / Veritable Records of King Myeongjong||34||21||1571 (4th year of King Seonjo)||明宗大王實錄|
|14||Seonjo sogyeong daewang sillok / Veritable Records of King Seonjo||221||116||1616 (8th year of King Gwanghaegun)||宣宗昭敬大王實錄|
|"||Seonjo sogyeong daewang sujeong sillok / Revised Veritable Records of King Seonjo||42||8||1657 (8th year of King Hyojong)||宣祖昭敬大王修正實錄|
|15||Gwanghae-gun ilgi (jungchobon) / Daily Records of Gwanghaegun (second draft)||187||64||1633 (11th year of King Injo)||光海君日記 (Mt. Taebaek version)|
|"||Gwanghae-gun ilgi (jeongchobon)/ Daily Records of Gwanghaegun (final draft)||187||40||1653 (4th year of King Hyojong)||光海君日記 (Mt. Jeongjok version)|
|16||Injo daewang sillok/ Veritable Records of King Injo||50||50||1653 (4th year of King Hyojong)||仁祖大王實錄|
|17||Hyojong daewang sillok/ Veritable Records of King Hyojong||21||22||1661 (2nd year of King Hyeonjong)||孝宗大王實錄|
|18||Hyeonjong daewang sillok / Veritable Records of King Hyeonjong||22||23||1677 (3rd year of King Sukjong)||顯宗大王實錄(顯宗純文肅武敬仁彰孝大王實錄)|
|"||Hyeonjong daewang gaesu sillok/ Supplemented Veritable Records of King Hyeonjong||28||29||1683 (9th year of King Sukjong)||顯宗大王改修實錄(顯宗純文肅武敬仁彰孝大王改修實錄)|
|19||Sukjong daewang sillok/ Veritable Records of King Sukjong||65||73||1728 (4th year of King Yeongjo)||肅宗大王實錄(肅宗顯義光倫睿聖英烈章文憲武敬明元孝大王實錄) * 卷末에 補闕正誤篇 附錄|
|20||Gyeongjong daewang sillok / Veritable Records of King Gyeongjong||15||7||1732 (8th year of King Yeongjo)||景宗大王實錄(景宗德文翼武純仁宣孝大王實錄)|
|"||Gyeongjong daewang gaesu sillok/ Supplemented Veritable Records of King Gyeongjong||5||3||1781 (5th year of King Jeongjo)||景宗大王修正實錄(景宗德文翼武純仁宣孝大王修正實錄)|
|21||Yeongjong daewang sillok/ Veritable Records of King Yeongjong||127||83||1781 (5th year of King Jeongjo)||英宗大王實錄(英宗至行純德英謨毅烈章義弘倫光仁敦禧體天建極聖功神化大成廣運開泰基永堯明舜哲 乾健坤寧翼文宣武熙敬顯孝大王實錄)|
|22||Jeongjong daewang sillok/ Veritable Records of King Jeongjong||54||56||1805 (5th year of King Sunjo)||正宗大王實錄(正宗文成武烈聖仁莊孝大王實錄)|
|23||Sunjo daewang sillok/ Veritable Records of King Sunjo||34||36||1838 (4th year of King Heonjong)||純宗大王實錄(純宗淵德顯道景仁純禧文安武靖憲敬成孝大王實錄)|
|24||Heonjong daewang sillok/ Veritable Records of King Heonjong||16||9||1851 (2nd year of King Cheoljong)||憲宗大王實錄(憲宗經文緯武明仁哲孝大王實錄)|
|25||Cheoljong daewang sillok/ Veritable Records of King Cheoljong||15||9||1865 (2nd year of King Kojong)||哲宗大王實錄(哲宗熙倫正極粹德純聖文顯武成獻仁英孝大王實錄)|
|1894||888||The Mt. Taebaek version Sillok totals 1,707 fascicles in 848 books|
|26||Gojong sillok/ Veritable Records of King Gojong||52||52||高宗太皇帝實錄(高宗純天隆運肇極敦倫正聖光義明功大德堯峻舜徽禹謨湯敬應命立紀至化神烈巍勳洪業啓基宣曆乾行坤定英毅弘休壽康文憲武章仁翼貞孝太皇帝實錄)|
|27||Sunjong sillok/ Veritable Records of King Sunjong||22||8||純宗皇帝實錄(純宗文溫武寧敦仁誠敬孝皇帝實錄)|
|Total||74||60||##The Mt. Taebaek version Sillok totals 1,707 fascicles in 848 books|
Organization and contents of the Sillok
Most of the annals compilation projects followed the procedures and format adopted for the Veritable Records of Taejo. These are outlined below.
The Veritable Records of King Seongjong contains a very high number of fascicles, as each one covered just one month's time regardless of the content volume.
This includes his surname, personal name, courtesy name, parents' names, date of birth, his time as a youth, education, and investiture as crown prince. In case that he was adopted from a cadet branch, his real parent's backgrounds and the adoption process were also documented.
Such a layout makes the Sillok appear to be the typical annals document, but much more is provided than the facts recorded in a log or diary. This is a history enriched by the observations of the court diarist-historians (史官 sagwan) who were posted near the king every day and wrote the daily entries, as well as by the critical commentaries from the Sillok recorders and compilers. Meanwhile, separate monographs (志 ji) have been added to the chronological accounts in both the Veritable Records of King Sejong and the Veritable Records of King Sejo. The Veritable Records of King Danjong includes a supplementary fascicle that details the process of restoring the deposed monarch's posthumous name and title as "king," and includes the related documentation.
The main text is laid out chronologically. The date of the entry may include the following elements, in descending order: the king's reign year, season, lunar month and day expressed in terms of the sexagenary cycle. In principle, the year after the ruler ascends the throne (i.e. his first full year on the throne) is designated the first reign year (元年 wonnyeon). However, when the preceeding ruler was deposed, his successor's first reign year is considered to be the same year he takes the throne. This was the case with Sejo, Jungjong and Injo. A notation on the Chinese emperor's reign year is placed below the Joseon ruler's reign year. The annals for the early Joseon rulers record the season along with the lunar month (e.g., spring, first month; summer, fourth month), but later in the dynasty only the month was written. A circle (○) was used to indicate a change in the date of the entry or in the contents of the entry.
“Small notes” (i.e., notes written in characters smaller than those of the main text) are attached when some special explanation is needed. The commentaries by the diarist-historian (Sagwan) frequently appear in the form of these “small notes.”
The appendix will contain records of conducts (行狀); document on the procedures to determine his posthumous title (諡狀), song of lamentation (哀冊文), and tombstone epitaph(陵誌文).
The Sillok covers a diverse array of topics, to include the lives and deeds of rulers and leading officials; diplomatic affairs; military activities; the processes of court debates; ceremonial events; astronomical observations; natural disasters; laws and legal precedents; statistics on population, taxation, and corvée labor conscription; information on provinces and folkways; and the contents of reports to the throne, official communiqués, memorials and rescripts. Guidelines were written each time the annals on a king's reign were compiled to determine what content to include and what to exclude. Despite this, the Sillok can be aptly described as being a record on virtually every subject. Notably, the annals written in early Joseon contain much information that would be difficult to justify according to strict Confucian norms. With the passage of time, the rich diversity of the Sillok contents diminished with the focus increasingly put on political matters.Compilation guidelines (撰修凡例) were set on the types of information to be recorded and on the methods for recoding it. A classic example of such guidelines can be found in the Veritable Records of King Hyojong. The guidelines have been summarized below to shed some light on the types of contents recorded in the Sillok:
Veritable Records of King Hyojong Compilation Guidelines
1. When writing the Sillok, the following sources are used as references: Records of Administration (時政記) by the dedicated diarist-historians, daily records by the recorders (注書日記) in the Royal Secretariat, records by officials who hold concurrent posts in the Bureau of State Records (內外兼春秋所記), memoranda scrolls (狀啓軸) from the Border Defense Council, investigations (推案) by the State Tribunal, major documents from the Ministry of Punishments (刑曹緊關可考文書) and daily records by Royal Secretariat recorders on interrogations at the State Tribunal regarding acts of sedition (事變推鞠注書日記).
2. All imperial decrees (from China) and royal edicts related to the present dynasty (Joseon) are cited directly.
3. The passing of prominent officials is indicated with the character chol (卒). When information on these persons is incomplete, it is to be supplemented by the public opinion toward them, or his own writings and tombstone epitaph.
4. Daily entries are indicated in terms of the sexagenary cycle.
5. As a general rule, records by the Office for Observance of Natural Phenomena are examined when detailing natural disasters and celestial portents, which are covered as individual events. Each typhoon, earthquake and other natural disaster that occurs in outlying regions must be recorded without fail by examining the reports that were submitted the throne at the time of occurrence.
6. As a general rule, details on selections for government posts (besides the unimportant positions, miscellaneous tasks, extraneous officials, and honorary positions) are to be written after examining the personnel-related documents at the Ministry of Personnel and Ministry of War.
7. Regarding censors’ reports to the throne, all the important contents of their first submission are to be included, while follow-ups are to be noted simply as “follow-up report” (連啓). However, when important new details are included, they are to be recorded.
8. Censors’ reports are to be identified simply by the notations “Office of Inspector-General” (憲府) or “Office of the Censor-General” (諫院), and the submitters’ names are not to be mentioned, except for the initial report. In the event of a major controversy, the names of the principle proponents and opponents must be recorded. The names of general inspectors (御史) are to be recorded, and their actions, to include demoting or promoting people as well as addressing social ills, are to be presented in detail.
9. The most important of the memorials to the throne are to be recorded entirely, but unimportant details within those memorials may be omitted. Ceremonial resignations normally need not be recorded in full. However, when these actions involve questions of right and wrong with regard to government affairs, they must be recorded.
10. Passers of the higher civil service examination each year are to be referred to as “chuigideung giin” (取其等幾人).
11. The number of soldiers in the military, the legal practices within and without the capital area, and the number of households throughout the state must be recorded in detail, after examining the relevant documents.
12. The writers must strive to keep the text both concise and substantive, deleting useless passages and simplifying confusing parts.
13. Issues of the auspicious (such as weddings, birthdays) and inauspicious (funerals) ceremonies at court which are of value to future generations concerning the standards and norms of behavior should be recorded despite their complexity.
14.Important points must, without fail, be recorded in summary regarding the demotion and promotion of officials and their right and wrong deeds in both the public and private spheres.
The above text illustrates what the Sillok compilers believed to be important and provides clues as to how they organized the material.
Compilation and Management
● Draft history of Injo for the year muin
● Storage facility at the Mt. Jeongjok arhive
● Mt. Odae archive
● Mt. Taebaek archive
The Imjin War with Japan erupted in 1592 (25th year of Seonjo’s reign), and the archives inside the Bureau of State Records (in the capital) as well as in the archives at Chungju and Seongju were all destroyed by fire that same year. Fortunately, the sets safeguarded at Jeonju were saved thanks to the heroic efforts of local scholars An Ui (安義 ?-?) and Son Hongrok (孫弘祿 ?-?). They heard the news that the invading Japanese troops had reached Geumsan in the sixth month of 1592 and used their own funds to move 804 fascicles of Sillok texts, covering the reigns from Taejo to Myeongjong, as well as other documents stored in the Jeonju archive, to Eunbong-am, a Buddhist hermitage on Mt. Naejang, in Jeong-eup (Township). The two scholars took turns guarding the precious documents for more than a year, until they could be handed over to the government authorities in the seventh month of 1593. The government officials who received the texts first transported them to the coast and then by sea to Haeju (Hwanghae Province). They were subsequently relocated to Ganghwa Island in the mouth of the Han River and then to Mt. Myohang (Pyeong’an Province). The Imjin War ended in 1598, leaving a devastated country and a government bereft of funds and material resources. Despite the difficulties, a 33-month-long project was launched in the seventh month in 1603 to reproduce three printed sets of the first thirteen Veritable Records (from Taejo to Myeongjong). The project ended in the third month of 1606 with five complete sets of the Joseon Sillok up to that time (the original set from Jeonju, a handwritten revised version used as the master for printing, plus the three printed sets).
One of these five sets was returned to the Bureau of State Records in the capital and referred to as needed by the government. Each of the other four was safeguarded at one of the archives newly built in remote locations deemed to be less vulnerable to destruction in the event of a war: Mt. Mani on Ganghwa Island; Mt. Taebaek in Gyeongsang Province; Mt. Myohyang in Pyeong’an Province; and Mt. Odae in Gangwon Province. The newly printed sets were stored at the Bureau of State Records, on Mt. Taebaek and on Mt. Myohyang. The original set from Jeonju ended up at Mt. Mani, while the revised master set went to Mt. Odae. The precedent was thus set for five copies to be produced each time the annals for a ruler’s reign was compiled. The Veritable Records of King Seonjo were produced in five sets during the reign of Gwanghaegun (r. 1608-23) and each was stored in one of the five archives. However, all the annals inside the Bureau of State Records in the capital were burned during a rebellion by General Yi Gwal (李适 ?-1624) in 1624 (second year of Injo’s reign). The set that was lost was never reproduced, and the Sillok was no longer maintained at the Bureau of State Records. Subsequent annals were produced in four sets only, and these were preserved in the four archives outside the capital. The Later Jin arose in Manchuria in 1633, and diplomatic relations between Joseon and the Manchus soured, prompting the government to relocated the archives at Mt. Myohyang to a new archive on Mt. Jeoksang, in Jeolla Province. The Sillok at Mt. Mani (on Ganghwa-do) suffered extensive damage during the Manchu invasion of Joseon in 1636. Numerous pages and even entire fascicles were lost, but the missing parts were fully restored during the reign of Hyeonjong (r. 1659-75). A new archive was on Ganghwa-do, this time on Mt. Jeongjok, in 1678 (fourth year of Sukjong’s reign), and the restored set was moved there. Thereafter, the four sets of annals produced for each reign through Cheoljong (r. 1849-63) were preserved at the four archives on Mt. Jeongjok, Mt. Taebaek, Mt. Jeoksang, and Mt. Odae. These were kept intact at these locations until the end of Joseon in the early 20th century.
However, the country lost her sovereignty to Japan in 1910, and the Veritable Records of the Joseon Dynasty were once again put into great peril. The archives at Mt. Jeongjok and Mt. Taebaek, along with the collection from the Palace Library came under the control of the Japanese Government-General of Korea, while the Sillok from the Mt. Jeoksang archive was entrusted to the Jangseogak Library on the grounds of the old Imperial Palace (known as Deoksu-gung today) and the set from Mt. Odae was sent to Tokyo Imperial University in Japan. The Sillok from the Mt. Odae archive shipped to Tokyo Imperial University was then mainly lost during the Great Kanto Earthquake that struck Japan on September 1, 1923. Twenty-seven (20 from the Veritable Records of King Jungjong and 7 from the Veritable Records of King Seonjo) of the 74 books that escaped destruction in the earthquake were transferred to Seoul and put in the Keijo Imperial University Library on May 28, 1932. The other 47 books (9 from the Veritable Records of King Seongjong, 30 from the Veritable Records of King Jungjong, and 8 from the Veritable Records of King Seonjo) were returned from the University of Tokyo to the Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies at Seoul National University on July 7, 2006. All 74 books are currently kept at the National Palace Museum of Korea. On March 22, 1985, meanwhile, responsibility for the 848 books that were once stored in the Mt. Taebaek archive was assumed by the National Archives of Korea under an agreement among the National Archives of Korea, Cultural Properties Administration and Seoul National University. The Historical Repository in Busan was subsequently designated as the official guardian of the Sillok from Mt. Taebaek.
In addition, the Mt. Jeonksang version was maintained at the Jangseogak Library, but a lot of books were stolen and lost immediately after Korea’s liberation from Japanese rule in 1945. The rest of the collection was is said to have been moved to North Korea while the North Korean forces occupied the capital during the Korean War, and now kept at the Kim Il Sung University Library in Pyeongyang; this has not been officially confirmed yet.
The Veritable Records of the Joseon Dynasty represent a valuable historical resource, the likes of which is hard to find anywhere else in the entire world. The collection is massive in terms of sheer volumes. At the same time the Sillok provides a high diverse range of contemporary data from Joseon covering governance, diplomacy, military affairs, government systems, laws, the economy, industry, transportation, communication, society, customs, astronomy, geography, the principles of Yin and Yang, science, medicine, literature, music, visual arts, handicrafts, scholarship, ideology, ethics, morality and religion.
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